By R. G. Barry (auth.), Yvonne Herman (eds.)

The Arctic quarter has lengthy held a fascination for explorers and scientists of many nations. regardless of the varied voyages of exploration, the na­ ture of the relevant Arctic used to be unknown basically ninety years in the past; it used to be believed to be a shallow sea dotted with islands. in the course of Nansen's ancient voyage at the polarship Fram, which began in 1893, the nice intensity of the principal basin was once stumbled on. within the Soviet Union, research of the Arctic Ocean grew to become nationwide coverage after 1917. this day examine at numerous clinical associations there's dedicated essentially to the learn of the North Polar Ocean and seas. The systematic exploration of the Arctic by means of the U.S. com­ menced in 1951. study has been performed year-round from drifting ice islands, that are tabular fragments of glacier ice that separate from from ice cabinets. most often, ice islands originate off the northern coast of Ellesmere Island. those learn structures are occupied as climate sta­ tions, in addition to for oceanographic and geophysical reports. a number of inter­ nationwide initiatives, performed by means of Canadian, ecu, and U. S. teams, were underway over the past 3 many years. even if a lot new information have amassed because the e-book of the Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Arctic Seas quantity in 1974 (Yvonne Herman, ed. ), in quite a few fields of polar research-including present-day ice disguise, hydrogra­ phy, fauna, flowers, and geology-many questions stay to be answered.

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